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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

Form 10-K

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019

or

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Commission file number 1-9861

 

M&T BANK CORPORATION

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

New York

16-0968385

(State of incorporation)

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

 

 

One M&T Plaza, Buffalo, New York

14203

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code:

716-635-4000

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of Each Class

Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered

Common Stock, $.50 par value

New York Stock Exchange

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months, and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.  

 

Large accelerated filer

 

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

 

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes      No  

Aggregate market value of the Common Stock, $0.50 par value, held by non-affiliates of the registrant, computed by reference to the closing price as of the close of business on June 30, 2019: $22,178,197,910.

Number of shares of the Common Stock, $0.50 par value, outstanding as of the close of business on January 31, 2020: 130,436,633 shares.

Documents Incorporated By Reference:

(1) Portions of the Proxy Statement for the 2020 Annual Meeting of Shareholders of M&T Bank Corporation in Parts II and III.

 

 

 

 


M&T BANK CORPORATION

Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019

CROSS-REFERENCE SHEET

 

 

 

Form 10-K

Page

PART I

Item 1.

Business

 

4

Statistical disclosure pursuant to Guide 3

 

 

 

I.

Distribution of assets, liabilities, and shareholders’ equity; interest rates and interest differential

 

 

 

 

A.

Average balance sheets

 

56

 

 

B.

Interest income/expense and resulting yield or rate on average interest-earning assets (including non-accrual loans) and interest‑bearing liabilities

 

56

 

 

C.

Rate/volume variances

 

25

 

II.

Investment portfolio

 

 

 

 

A.

Year-end balances

 

23,124-125

 

 

B.

Maturity schedule and weighted average yield

 

91

 

 

C.

Aggregate carrying value of securities that exceed ten percent of shareholders’ equity

 

125

 

III.

Loan portfolio

 

 

 

 

A.

Year-end balances

 

23,128

 

 

B.

Maturities and sensitivities to changes in interest rates

 

89

 

 

C.

Risk elements

 

 

 

 

 

Nonaccrual, past due and renegotiated loans

 

72,129-132

 

 

 

Actual and pro forma interest on certain loans

 

130,136

 

 

 

Nonaccrual policy

 

119-120

 

 

 

Loan concentrations

 

81

 

IV.

Summary of loan loss experience

 

 

 

 

A.

Analysis of the allowance for loan losses

 

69,134-138

 

 

 

Factors influencing management’s judgment concerning the adequacy of the allowance and provision

 

69-82,121,134-138

 

 

B.

Allocation of the allowance for loan losses

80,134-135,138

 

V.

Deposits

 

 

 

 

A.

Average balances and rates

 

56

 

 

B.

Maturity schedule of domestic time deposits with balances of $100,000 or more

 

92

 

VI.

Return on equity and assets

 

25,49-50,96,99

 

VII.

Short-term borrowings

 

144

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

 

26-39

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

40

Item 2.

Properties

 

40

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

 

41

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

41

 

Executive Officers of the Registrant

 

42-44

PART II

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

45-47

 

A.

Principal market

 

45

 

B.

Approximate number of holders at year-end

 

23

 

C.

Frequency and amount of dividends declared

 

24-25,106,117

2


 

 

Form 10-K

Page

 

D.

Restrictions on dividends

 

9

 

E.

Securities authorized for issuance under equity
compensation plans

 

45-47

 

F.

Performance graph

 

46

 

G.

Repurchases of common stock

 

47

Item 6.

Selected Financial Data

 

47

 

A.

Selected consolidated year-end balances

 

23

 

B.

Consolidated earnings, etc.

 

24

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition
and Results of Operations

 

47-107

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

108

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

108

 

A.

Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

 

109

 

B.

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

 

110-112

 

C.

Consolidated Balance Sheet — December 31, 2019 and 2018

 

113

 

D.

Consolidated Statement of Income — Years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017

 

114

 

E.

Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income — Years
ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017

 

115

 

F.

Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows — Years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017

 

116

 

G.

Consolidated Statement of Changes in Shareholders’ Equity — Years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017

 

117

 

H.

Notes to Financial Statements

 

118-194

 

I.

Quarterly Trends

 

106

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting
and Financial Disclosure

 

195

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

 

195

 

A.

Conclusions of principal executive officer and principal financial officer regarding disclosure controls and procedures

 

195

 

B.

Management’s annual report on internal control over financial reporting

 

195

 

C.

Attestation report of the registered public accounting firm

 

195

 

D.

Changes in internal control over financial reporting

 

195

Item 9B.

Other Information

 

195

PART III

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

195

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

 

196

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

196

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

196

Item 14.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

 

196

PART IV

Item 15.

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

 

196-199

Item 16.

Form 10-K Summary

 

199

SIGNATURES

 

200-201

 

3


PART I

Item 1.

Business.

M&T Bank Corporation (“Registrant” or “M&T”) is a New York business corporation which is registered as a financial holding company under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (“BHCA”) and as a bank holding company (“BHC”) under Article III-A of the New York Banking Law (“Banking Law”). The principal executive offices of M&T are located at One M&T Plaza, Buffalo, New York 14203. M&T was incorporated in November 1969. M&T and its direct and indirect subsidiaries are collectively referred to herein as the “Company.” As of December 31, 2019 the Company had consolidated total assets of $119.9 billion, deposits of $94.8 billion and shareholders’ equity of $15.7 billion. The Company had 16,998 full-time and 775 part-time employees as of December 31, 2019.

At December 31, 2019, M&T had two wholly owned bank subsidiaries: Manufacturers and Traders Trust Company (“M&T Bank”) and Wilmington Trust, National Association (“Wilmington Trust, N.A.”). The banks collectively offer a wide range of retail and commercial banking, trust and wealth management, and investment services to their customers. At December 31, 2019, M&T Bank represented 99% of consolidated assets of the Company.

The Company from time to time considers acquiring banks, thrift institutions, branch offices of banks or thrift institutions, or other businesses within markets currently served by the Company or in other locations that would complement the Company’s business or its geographic reach. The Company has pursued acquisition opportunities in the past, continues to review different opportunities, including the possibility of major acquisitions, and intends to continue this practice.

Subsidiaries

M&T Bank is a banking corporation that is incorporated under the laws of the State of New York. M&T Bank is a member of the Federal Reserve System and the Federal Home Loan Bank System, and its deposits are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) up to applicable limits. M&T acquired all of the issued and outstanding shares of the capital stock of M&T Bank in December 1969. The stock of M&T Bank represents a major asset of M&T. M&T Bank operates under a charter granted by the State of New York in 1892, and the continuity of its banking business is traced to the organization of the Manufacturers and Traders Bank in 1856. The principal executive offices of M&T Bank are located at One M&T Plaza, Buffalo, New York 14203. As of December 31, 2019, M&T Bank had 731 domestic banking offices located in New York State, Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Connecticut, Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia, a full-service commercial banking office in Ontario, Canada, and an office in George Town, Cayman Islands. As of December 31, 2019, M&T Bank had consolidated total assets of $119.4 billion, deposits of $96.4 billion and shareholder’s equity of $15.1 billion. The deposit liabilities of M&T Bank are insured by the FDIC through its Deposit Insurance Fund (“DIF”). As a commercial bank, M&T Bank offers a broad range of financial services to a diverse base of consumers, businesses, professional clients, governmental entities and financial institutions located in its markets. Lending is largely focused on consumers residing in New York State, Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Connecticut, Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C., and on small and medium-size businesses based in those areas, although loans are originated through offices in other states and in Ontario, Canada. In addition, the Company conducts lending activities in various states through other subsidiaries. Trust and other fiduciary services are offered by M&T Bank and through its wholly owned subsidiary, Wilmington Trust Company. M&T Bank and certain of its subsidiaries also offer commercial mortgage loans secured by income producing properties or properties used by borrowers in a trade or business. Additional financial services are provided through other operating subsidiaries of the Company.

4


Wilmington Trust, N.A., a national banking association and a member of the Federal Reserve System and the FDIC, commenced operations on October 2, 1995. The deposit liabilities of Wilmington Trust, N.A. are insured by the FDIC through the DIF. The main office of Wilmington Trust, N.A. is located at 1100 North Market Street, Wilmington, Delaware 19890. Wilmington Trust, N.A. offers various trust and wealth management services. As of December 31, 2019, Wilmington Trust, N.A. had total assets of $4.7 billion, deposits of $3.9 billion and shareholder’s equity of $607 million.

Wilmington Trust Company, a wholly owned subsidiary of M&T Bank, was incorporated as a Delaware bank and trust company in March 1901 and amended its charter in July 2011 to become a nondepository trust company. Wilmington Trust Company provides a variety of Delaware based trust, fiduciary and custodial services to its clients. As of December 31, 2019, Wilmington Trust Company had total assets of $1.1 billion and shareholder’s equity of $632 million. Revenues of Wilmington Trust Company were $131 million in 2019. The headquarters of Wilmington Trust Company are located at 1100 North Market Street, Wilmington, Delaware 19890.

M&T Insurance Agency, Inc. (“M&T Insurance Agency”), a wholly owned insurance agency subsidiary of M&T Bank, was incorporated as a New York corporation in March 1955. M&T Insurance Agency provides insurance agency services principally to the commercial market. As of December 31, 2019, M&T Insurance Agency had assets of $42 million and shareholder’s equity of $23 million. M&T Insurance Agency recorded revenues of $37 million during 2019. The headquarters of M&T Insurance Agency are located at 285 Delaware Avenue, Buffalo, New York 14202.

M&T Real Estate Trust (“M&T Real Estate”) was a Maryland Real Estate Investment Trust that traced its origin to the incorporation of M&T Real Estate, Inc. in July 1995. M&T Real Estate engaged in commercial real estate lending and provided loan servicing to M&T Bank. M&T Real Estate was merged into M&T Bank effective September 1, 2019.  Prior to its merger with M&T Bank, M&T Real Estate recorded $821 million of revenue in 2019.

M&T Realty Capital Corporation (“M&T Realty Capital”), a wholly owned subsidiary of M&T Bank, was incorporated as a Maryland corporation in October 1973. M&T Realty Capital engages in multifamily commercial real estate lending and provides loan servicing to purchasers of the loans it originates. As of December 31, 2019, M&T Realty Capital serviced or sub-serviced $21.0 billion of commercial mortgage loans for non-affiliates and had assets of $510 million and shareholder’s equity of $180 million. M&T Realty Capital recorded revenues of $174 million in 2019. The headquarters of M&T Realty Capital are located at One Light Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21202.

M&T Securities, Inc. (“M&T Securities”) is a wholly owned subsidiary of M&T Bank that was incorporated as a New York business corporation in November 1985. M&T Securities is registered as a broker/dealer under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and as an investment advisor under the Investment Advisors Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Advisors Act”). M&T Securities is licensed as a life insurance agent in each state where M&T Bank operates branch offices and in a number of other states. It provides securities brokerage, investment advisory and insurance services. As of December 31, 2019, M&T Securities had assets of $55 million and shareholder’s equity of $44 million. M&T Securities recorded $94 million of revenue during 2019. The headquarters of M&T Securities are located at 285 Delaware Avenue, Buffalo, New York 14202.

Wilmington Trust Investment Advisors, Inc. (“WT Investment Advisors”), a wholly owned subsidiary of M&T Bank, was incorporated as a Maryland corporation on June 30, 1995. WT Investment Advisors, a registered investment advisor under the Investment Advisors Act, serves as an investment advisor to the Wilmington Funds, a family of proprietary mutual funds, and institutional clients. As of December 31, 2019, WT Investment Advisors had assets of $54 million and shareholder’s equity of $45 million. WT Investment Advisors recorded revenues of $38 million

5


in 2019. The headquarters of WT Investment Advisors are located at 1100 North Market Street, Wilmington, Delaware 19890.

Wilmington Funds Management Corporation (“Wilmington Funds Management”) is a wholly owned subsidiary of M&T that was incorporated in September 1981 as a Delaware corporation. Wilmington Funds Management is registered as an investment advisor under the Investment Advisors Act and serves as an investment advisor to the Wilmington Funds. Wilmington Funds Management had assets and shareholder’s equity of $63 million and $62 million, respectively, as of December 31, 2019. Wilmington Funds Management recorded revenues of $25 million in 2019. The headquarters of Wilmington Funds Management are located at 1100 North Market Street, Wilmington, Delaware 19890.

Wilmington Trust Investment Management, LLC (“WTIM”) is a wholly owned subsidiary of M&T and was incorporated in December 2001 as a Georgia limited liability company. WTIM is a registered investment advisor under the Investment Advisors Act and provides investment management services to clients, including certain private funds. As of December 31, 2019, WTIM has assets and shareholder’s equity of $22 million. WTIM recorded revenues of $4 million in 2019. WTIM’s headquarters is located at Terminus 27th Floor, 3280 Peachtree Road N.E., Atlanta, Georgia 30305.

The Registrant and its banking subsidiaries have a number of other special-purpose or inactive subsidiaries. These other subsidiaries did not represent, individually and collectively, a significant portion of the Company’s consolidated assets, net income and shareholders’ equity at December 31, 2019.

Segment Information, Principal Products/Services and Foreign Operations

Information about the Registrant’s business segments is included in note 22 of Notes to Financial Statements filed herewith in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” and is further discussed in Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” The Registrant’s reportable segments have been determined based upon its internal profitability reporting system, which is organized by strategic business unit. Certain strategic business units have been combined for segment information reporting purposes where the nature of the products and services, the type of customer and the distribution of those products and services are similar. The reportable segments are Business Banking, Commercial Banking, Commercial Real Estate, Discretionary Portfolio, Residential Mortgage Banking and Retail Banking. The Company’s international activities are discussed in note 17 of Notes to Financial Statements filed herewith in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”

The only activity that, as a class, contributed 10% or more of the sum of consolidated interest income and other income in any of the last three years was interest on loans. The amount of income from such sources during those years is set forth on the Company’s Consolidated Statement of Income filed herewith in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”

Supervision and Regulation of the Company

M&T and its subsidiaries are subject to the comprehensive regulatory framework applicable to bank and financial holding companies and their subsidiaries. Regulation of financial institutions such as M&T and its subsidiaries is intended primarily for the protection of depositors, the FDIC’s DIF and the banking and financial system as a whole, and generally is not intended for the protection of shareholders, investors or creditors other than insured depositors.

Proposals to change the applicable regulatory framework may be introduced in the United States Congress and state legislatures, as well as by regulatory agencies. Such initiatives may include proposals to expand or contract the powers of bank holding companies and depository institutions or proposals to substantially change the financial institution regulatory system. Such legislation could

6


change banking statutes and the operating environment of the Company in substantial and unpredictable ways. If enacted, such legislation could increase or decrease the cost of doing business, limit or expand permissible activities or affect the competitive balance among banks, savings associations, credit unions, and other financial institutions. A change in statutes, regulations or regulatory policies applicable to M&T or any of its subsidiaries could have a material effect on the business, financial condition or results of operations of the Company.

Described hereafter are material elements of the significant federal and state laws and regulations applicable to M&T and its subsidiaries. The descriptions are not intended to be complete and are qualified in their entirety by reference to the full text of the statutes and regulations described and do not include all pending or proposed changes in current laws or regulations.

Overview

M&T is registered with the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (“Federal Reserve”) as a financial holding company and BHC under the BHCA. As such, M&T and its subsidiaries are subject to the supervision, examination, reporting, capital and other requirements of the BHCA and the regulations of the Federal Reserve. In addition, M&T’s banking subsidiaries are subject to regulation, supervision and examination by, as applicable, the New York State Department of Financial Services (“NYSDFS”), the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (“OCC”), the FDIC and the Federal Reserve and their consumer financial products and services are regulated by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”). Further, financial services entities such as M&T’s investment advisor subsidiaries and M&T’s broker-dealer are subject to regulation by the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”), and the Securities Investor Protection Corporation (“SIPC”), among others. Other non-bank affiliates and activities, particularly insurance brokerage and agency activities, are subject to other federal and state laws and regulations as well as licensing and regulation by state insurance and bank regulatory agencies. Although the scope of regulation and form of supervision may vary from state to state, insurance laws generally grant broad discretion to regulatory authorities in adopting regulations and supervising regulated activities. This supervision generally includes the licensing of insurance brokers and agents and the regulation of the handling of customer funds held in a fiduciary capacity as well as regulations requiring, among other things, maintenance of capital, record keeping, and reporting.

M&T Bank is a New York chartered bank and a member of the Federal Reserve. As a result, it is subject to extensive regulation, examination and oversight by the NYSDFS and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. New York laws and regulations govern many aspects of M&T Bank’s operations, including branching, dividends, subsidiary activities, fiduciary activities, lending, and deposit taking. M&T Bank is also subject to Federal Reserve regulations and guidance, including with respect to capital levels. Its deposits are insured by the FDIC to $250,000 per depositor, which also exercises regulatory oversight over certain aspects of M&T Bank’s operations. Certain subsidiaries of M&T Bank are subject to regulation by other federal and state regulators as well. For example, M&T Securities is regulated by the SEC, FINRA, SIPC, and state securities regulators, and WT Investment Advisors is also subject to SEC regulation.

Wilmington Trust, N.A. is a national bank with operations that include fiduciary and related activities with limited lending and deposit business. It is subject to extensive regulation, examination and oversight by the OCC which governs many aspects of its operations, including fiduciary activities, capital levels, office locations, dividends and subsidiary activities. Its deposits are insured by the FDIC to $250,000 per depositor, which also exercises regulatory oversight over certain aspects of the operations of Wilmington Trust, N.A.

 

7


Enhanced Prudential Standards

Under Section 165 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (“Dodd-Frank Act”), as amended by the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act of 2018 (“EGRRCPA”), U.S. bank holding companies with total consolidated assets of $100 billion or more, including M&T, are currently subject to enhanced prudential standards. The enhanced prudential standards include risk-based capital and leverage requirements, liquidity standards, risk management and risk committee requirements, stress test requirements and a debt-to-equity limit for companies that the Financial Stability Oversight Council has determined would pose a grave threat to systemic financial stability were they to fail such limits.

In October 2019, the Federal Reserve and the other Federal bank regulators adopted rules that tailor the application of the enhanced prudential standards to bank holding companies and of capital and liquidity requirements to bank holding companies and depository institutions (the “Tailoring Rules”). The Tailoring Rules assign each U.S. BHC with $100 billion or more in total consolidated assets, as well as its bank subsidiaries, to one of four categories based on its size and five other risk-based indicators: (1) cross-jurisdictional activity, (2) weighted short-term wholesale funding, (3) nonbank assets, (4) off-balance sheet exposure, and (5) status as a U.S. global systemically important BHC (“G-SIB”). Under the Tailoring Rules, M&T (and, pursuant to the Tailoring Rules, its depository institution subsidiaries) is subject to Category IV standards, which apply to banking organizations with at least $100 billion in total consolidated assets that do not meet any of the thresholds specified for Categories I through III.

Under the Tailoring Rules, Category IV firms, among other things, (1) are not subject to any Liquidity Coverage Ratio (“LCR”) (or, in certain cases, subject to reduced requirements), (2) remain eligible to opt-out of the requirement to recognize most elements of Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (“AOCI”) in regulatory capital, (3) are no longer subject to company-run stress testing requirements, (4) are subject to supervisory stress testing on a biennial basis rather than an annual basis, (5) are subject to requirements to develop and maintain a capital plan on an annual basis and (6) are subject to certain liquidity risk management and risk committee requirements. Category IV firms continue not to be subject to (1) advanced approaches capital requirements, (2) the supplementary leverage ratio and (3) the countercyclical capital buffer. Other elements of the Tailoring Rules are discussed in further detail throughout this section.

M&T will continue to evaluate the impact of any changes in law and any new regulations promulgated, including changes in regulatory costs and fees, modifications to consumer products or disclosures required by the CFPB and the requirements of the enhanced supervision provisions, among others.

Permissible Activities under the BHC Act 

In general, the BHCA limits the business of a BHC to banking, managing or controlling banks, and other activities that the Federal Reserve has determined to be so closely related to banking as to be a proper incident thereto. In addition, bank holding companies are expected to serve as a managerial and financial source of strength to their subsidiary depository institutions, including committing resources to support such subsidiaries. This support may be required at times when M&T may not be inclined or able to provide it. In addition, any capital loans by a BHC to a subsidiary bank are subordinate in right of payment to deposits and to certain other indebtedness of such subsidiary bank. In the event of a BHC’s bankruptcy, any commitment by the BHC to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of a subsidiary bank will be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee and entitled to a priority of payment.

Bank holding companies that qualify and elect to be financial holding companies may engage in any activity, or acquire and retain the shares of a company engaged in any activity, that is either (i) financial in nature or incidental to such financial activity (as determined by the Federal Reserve,

8


by regulation or order, in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury) or (ii) complementary to a financial activity and does not pose a substantial risk to the safety and soundness of depository institutions or the financial system generally (as solely determined by the Federal Reserve). Activities that are financial in nature include securities underwriting and dealing, insurance underwriting and merchant banking.

M&T elected to become a financial holding company on March 1, 2011. To maintain financial holding company status, a financial holding company and all of its depository institution subsidiaries must be “well capitalized” and “well managed.” The failure to meet such requirements could result in material restrictions on the activities of M&T and may also adversely affect the Company’s ability to enter into certain transactions or obtain necessary approvals in connection therewith, as well as loss of financial holding company status. Additionally, if all of the Company’s depository institution subsidiaries have not received at least a “satisfactory” rating on its most recent examination under the the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 (the “CRA”), it would not be able to commence any new financial activities or acquire a company that engages in such activities, although it would still be allowed to engage in activities closely related to banking and make investments in the ordinary course of conducting banking activities. See the section captioned “Community Reinvestment Act” included elsewhere in this discussion.

Distributions

M&T is a legal entity separate and distinct from its banking and other subsidiaries. Historically, the majority of M&T’s revenue has been from dividends paid to M&T by its subsidiary banks. M&T Bank and Wilmington Trust, N.A. are subject to laws and regulations imposing restrictions on the amount of dividends they may declare and pay. Future dividend payments to M&T by its subsidiary banks will be dependent on a number of factors, including the earnings and financial condition of each such bank, and are subject to the limitations referred to in note 23 of Notes to Financial Statements filed herewith in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” and to other statutory powers of bank regulatory agencies.

An insured depository institution is prohibited from making any capital distribution to its owner, including any dividend, if, after making such distribution, the depository institution fails to meet the required minimum level for any relevant capital measure, including the risk-based capital adequacy and leverage standards discussed herein.

Dividend payments by M&T to its shareholders and common stock repurchases by M&T are subject to the oversight of the Federal Reserve. As described below in this section under “Stress Testing and Capital Plan Review,” dividends and common stock repurchases (net of any new stock issuances as per a capital plan) generally may only be paid or made under a capital plan as to which the Federal Reserve has not objected.

Capital Requirements

M&T and its subsidiary banks are required to comply with applicable capital adequacy standards established by the federal banking agencies (the “Capital Rules”), which are based on the Basel Committee’s December 2010 final capital framework for strengthening international capital standards, referred to as “Basel III”.

Among other matters, the Capital Rules impose a capital measure called Common Equity Tier 1 Capital (“CET1”) to which most deductions/adjustments to regulatory capital measures must be made. In addition, the Capital Rules specify that Tier 1 capital consists of CET1 and “Additional Tier 1 capital” instruments meeting certain specified requirements. Pursuant to the Capital Rules, the

 

 

 

9


minimum capital ratios are as follows:

 

4.5% CET1 to risk-weighted assets;

 

6.0% Tier 1 capital (that is, CET1 plus Additional Tier 1 capital) to risk-weighted assets;

 

8.0% Total capital (that is, Tier 1 capital plus Tier 2 capital) to risk-weighted assets; and

 

4.0% Tier 1 capital to average consolidated assets as reported on consolidated financial statements (known as the “leverage ratio”).

 

In calculating regulatory capital ratios M&T must assign risk weights to the Company’s assets and off-balance sheet items. M&T has an ongoing process to review data elements associated with certain assets that from time to time may affect how specific assets are classified and could lead to increases or decreases of the regulatory risk weights assigned to such assets.

The Capital Rules also impose a “capital conservation buffer” (“CCB”) of 2.5%, composed entirely of CET1, on top of the three minimum risk-weighted asset ratios listed above. The capital conservation buffer is designed to absorb losses during periods of economic stress. Thus, the effective minimum ratios applicable to M&T are (i) CET1 to risk-weighted assets of at least 7%, (ii) Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets of at least 8.5% and (iii) total capital to risk-weighted assets of at least 10.5%. Banking institutions that fail to meet the effective minimum ratios once the CCB is taken into account will be subject to constraints on capital distributions, including dividends and share repurchases, and certain discretionary executive compensation. The severity of the constraints depends on the amount of the shortfall and the institution’s “eligible retained income” (that is, four quarter trailing net income, net of distributions and tax effects not reflected in net income). On April 10, 2018, the Federal Reserve issued a proposal designed to create a single, integrated capital requirement by combining the quantitative assessment of firms’ capital plans with the CCB requirement. Details of this proposal are discussed under “Stress Testing and Capital Plan Review” herein. Although the proposal, if adopted, would change the way in which the minimum ratios are calculated, firms would continue to be subject to progressively more stringent constraints on capital actions as they approach the minimum ratios.

CET1 consists of common stock instruments that meet the eligibility criteria in the Capital Rules, including common stock and related surplus, net of treasury stock, retained earnings, certain minority interests and, for certain firms, AOCI. As permitted under the Capital Rules, M&T made a one-time permanent election to neutralize certain AOCI components, with the result that those components are not recognized in M&T’s CET1. The Capital Rules also preclude certain hybrid securities, such as trust preferred securities, from inclusion in bank holding companies’ Tier 1 capital. Thus, trust preferred securities no longer included in M&T’s Tier 1 capital may nonetheless be included as a component of Tier 2 capital on a permanent basis and irrespective of whether such securities otherwise meet the revised definition of Tier 2 capital set forth in the Capital Rules. M&T’s regulatory capital ratios are presented in note 23 of Notes to Financial Statements filed herewith in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”

The Capital Rules provide for a number of deductions from and adjustments to CET1. These include, for example, the requirement that mortgage servicing rights, certain deferred tax assets, and significant investments in non-consolidated financial entities be deducted from CET1. The deductions and other adjustments to CET1 capital generally became fully phased-in on January 1, 2018, except that in November 2017, the federal banking regulators revised the Capital Rules to extend the then-current transitional treatment of these deductions for non-advanced approaches banking organizations (the “Transition Rule”) until revisions to the deductions became effective.

In July 2019, the federal banking regulators adopted rules intended to simplify the deductions for these items for banking organizations, such as M&T, that are not subject to the “advanced approaches” under the Capital Rules (the “Capital Simplification Rules”). The Capital

10


Simplifications Rules and the rescission of the Transition Rule were adopted by the Company as of January 1, 2020.

In December 2017, the Basel Committee published standards that it described as the finalization of the Basel III post-crisis regulatory reforms (the standards are commonly referred to as “Basel IV”). Among other things, these standards revise the Basel Committee’s standardized approach for credit risk (including by recalibrating risk weights and introducing new capital requirements for certain “unconditionally cancellable commitments,” such as unused credit card lines of credit) and provides a new standardized approach for operational risk capital. Under the Basel framework, these standards will generally be effective on January 1, 2022, with an aggregate output floor phasing in through January 1, 2027. Under the current U.S. capital rules, operational risk capital requirements and a capital floor apply only to advanced approaches institutions, and not to the Company. The impact of Basel IV will depend on the manner in which it is implemented by the federal banking regulators.

Stress Testing and Capital Plan Review

As part of the enhanced prudential requirements applicable to systemically important financial institutions, the Federal Reserve conducts periodic analyses of bank holding companies with at least $100 billion in total consolidated assets to determine whether the companies have sufficient capital on a consolidated basis necessary to absorb losses in baseline and severely adverse economic and financial scenarios generated by the Federal Reserve. For Category IV firms, such as M&T, these supervisory stress tests occur on a biennial basis, including 2020. The Federal Reserve may also use additional components in the severely adverse scenario or additional or more complex scenarios designed to capture salient risks to specific business groups. A summary of results of the Federal Reserve’s analysis under the severely adverse stress scenario is publicly disclosed. Under the Tailoring Rules, Category IV firms, including M&T, are no longer subject to company-run stress testing requirements. However, they remain subject to the quantitative review of their capital plans under CCAR, to required capital plan submissions, and to the associated reporting requirements.

In addition, bank holding companies with total consolidated assets of $100 billion or more, such as M&T, must submit annual capital plans for approval as part of the Federal Reserve’s CCAR process. Covered bank holding companies may execute capital actions, such as paying dividends and repurchasing stock, only in accordance with a capital plan that has been reviewed and approved by the Federal Reserve (or any approved amendments to such plan). The comprehensive capital plans include a view of capital adequacy under various scenarios — including a BHC-defined baseline scenario, a baseline scenario provided by the Federal Reserve, at least one BHC-defined stress scenario, and severely adverse scenarios provided by the Federal Reserve. The CCAR process is intended to help ensure that these bank holding companies have robust, forward-looking capital planning processes that account for each company’s unique risks and that permit continued operations during times of economic and financial stress. Each of the bank holding companies participating in the CCAR process is also required to collect and report certain related data to the Federal Reserve on a quarterly basis to allow the Federal Reserve to monitor progress against the approved capital plans. Each capital plan must include a view of capital adequacy under the stress test scenarios described above. In connection with the adoption of the Tailoring Rules, the Federal Reserve stated that it expects to revise its guidance relating to capital planning to align with the categories of standards set forth in the Tailoring Rules, and the impact of the future proposal on M&T and its capital planning process will depend on the final form of the Federal Reserve’s revised guidance.

The Federal Reserve may object to a capital plan if the plan does not show that the covered BHC will maintain sufficient regulatory capital ratios on a pro forma basis under expected and stressful conditions throughout the nine-quarter planning horizon covered by the capital plan. The

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rules also provide that a covered BHC may not make a capital distribution unless after giving effect to the distribution it will meet all minimum regulatory capital ratios. The Federal Reserve also incorporates an assessment of the qualitative aspects of the firm’s capital planning process into regular, ongoing supervisory activities and through targeted, horizontal assessments of particular aspects of capital planning. M&T’s annual CCAR capital plan is currently due in April each year. The Federal Reserve publishes the results of its supervisory stress tests and quantitative CCAR review of capital plans by June 30 of each year.

In addition to other limitations, M&T’s ability to make any capital distributions is contingent on the Federal Reserve’s non-objection to M&T’s capital plan. The Federal Reserve generally limits a BHC’s ability to make quarterly capital distributions – that is, dividends and share repurchases – if the amount of the BHC’s actual cumulative quarterly capital issuances of instruments that qualify as regulatory capital are less than the BHC had indicated in its submitted capital plan as to which it received a non-objection from the Federal Reserve.

As noted above, on April 10, 2018, the Federal Reserve issued a proposal designed to create a single, integrated capital requirement by combining the quantitative assessment of CCAR with the CCB requirement. If adopted, the proposal would replace the current static 2.5% CCB with a stress capital buffer (“SCB”) requirement. The SCB, subject to a minimum of 2.5%, would reflect stressed losses in the supervisory severely adverse scenario of the Federal Reserve’s supervisory stress tests and would also include four quarters of planned common stock dividends. The proposal would also introduce a stress leverage buffer (“SLB”) requirement, similar to the SCB, which would apply to the Tier 1 leverage ratio. In addition, the proposal would eliminate the quantitative objection provisions of CCAR but would require a BHC to reduce its planned capital distributions if those distributions would not be consistent with the applicable capital buffer constraints based on the BHC’s own baseline scenario projections. The Federal Reserve has stated that it intends to propose revisions to the stress buffer requirements that would be applicable to a Category IV BHC to align with the two-year supervisory stress testing cycle for Category IV bank holding companies.

Liquidity

The Federal Reserve and other banking regulators have adopted rules implementing a U.S. version of the Basel Committee’s LCR requirement, which is intended to ensure that banks hold sufficient amounts of so-called “high quality liquid assets” (“HQLA”) to cover the anticipated net cash outflows during a hypothetical acute 30-day stress scenario. Under the Tailoring Rules, Category IV firms with less than $50 billion in weighted short-term wholesale funding, including M&T, are no longer subject to any LCR requirement.

The Basel III framework also included a second standard, referred to as the Net Stable Funding Ratio (“NSFR”), which is designed to promote more medium- and long-term funding of the assets and activities of banks over a one-year time horizon. In May 2016, the Federal Reserve and other federal banking regulators issued a proposed rule that would implement the NSFR for large U.S. banking organizations. Although the NSFR has not been finalized, it is expected that the framework for applying any finalized NSFR will be consistent with the approach for the LCR requirement under the Tailoring Rules.

Under the Tailoring Rules, Category IV firms, including M&T, remain subject to liquidity risk management requirements, but these requirements are now tailored such that these firms are required to: (i) calculate collateral positions monthly, as opposed to weekly; (ii) establish a more limited set of liquidity risk limits; and (iii) monitor fewer elements of intraday liquidity risk exposures. These firms are now also subject to liquidity stress testing quarterly, rather than monthly, and are required to report liquidity data on the FR 2052a on a monthly basis. M&T remains subject to the liquidity buffer requirements.

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Cross Guaranty Provision

The cross guaranty provisions in the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (“FDIA”) were enacted by Congress in the Financial Institutions, Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act of 1989 (“FIRREA”) and require each insured depository institution owned by the same BHC to be financially responsible for the failure or resolution costs of any affiliated insured institution. Generally, the amount of the cross guaranty liability is equal to the estimated loss to the DIF for the resolution of the affiliated institution(s) in default. The FDIC’s claim under the cross guaranty provision is superior to claims of shareholders of the insured depository institution or its BHC and to most claims arising out of obligations or liabilities owed to affiliates of the institution, but is subordinate to claims of depositors, secured creditors and holders of subordinated debt (other than affiliates) of the commonly controlled insured depository institution. The FDIC may decline to enforce the cross guaranty provision if it determines that a waiver is in the best interest of the DIF.

Volcker Rule

On December 10, 2013, the federal banking regulators and the SEC adopted the so-called Volcker Rule to implement the provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act limiting proprietary trading and investing in and sponsoring certain hedge funds and private equity funds (defined as “covered funds” in the Volcker Rule). The Company does not engage in any significant amount of proprietary trading as defined in the Volcker Rule and implemented the required procedures for those areas in which trading does occur. The covered funds limits are imposed through a conformance period that ended in July 2017. The Company has sought, and received, from the Federal Reserve, a five-year extension (to July 21, 2022) to either divest or terminate its investment in one venture capital fund. In October 2019, the Federal Reserve, OCC, FDIC, CFTC and SEC finalized rules to tailor the application of the Volcker Rule based on the size and scope of a banking entity’s trading activities and to clarify and amend certain definitions, requirements and exemptions. These regulators have also stated their intention to engage in further rulemaking with respect to the implementing of regulations relating to covered funds, including potential changes to the definition of “covered funds” and the prohibitions on certain covered transactions.

Safety and Soundness Standards

Guidelines adopted by the federal bank regulatory agencies pursuant to the FDIA establish general standards relating to internal controls, information systems, internal audit systems, loan documentation, credit underwriting, interest rate exposure, asset growth, compensation, fees and benefits. In general, these guidelines require, among other things, appropriate systems and practices to identify and manage the risk and exposures specified in the guidelines. Additionally, the agencies adopted regulations that authorize, but do not require, an agency to order an institution that has been given notice by an agency that it is not satisfying any of such safety and soundness standards to submit a compliance plan. If, after being so notified, an institution fails to submit an acceptable compliance plan or fails in any material respect to implement an acceptable compliance plan, the agency must issue an order directing action to correct the deficiency and may issue an order directing other actions of the types to which an undercapitalized institution is subject. If an institution fails to comply with such an order, the agency may seek to enforce such order in judicial proceedings and to impose civil money penalties.

Limits on Undercapitalized Depository Institutions

The FDIA establishes a system of regulatory remedies to resolve the problems of undercapitalized institutions, referred to as the prompt corrective action. The federal banking regulators have established five capital categories (“well-capitalized,” “adequately capitalized,” “undercapitalized,” “significantly undercapitalized” and “critically undercapitalized”) and must take certain mandatory

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supervisory actions, and are authorized to take other discretionary actions, with respect to institutions which are undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized or critically undercapitalized. The severity of these mandatory and discretionary supervisory actions depends upon the capital category in which the institution is placed. The FDIC has specified by regulation the relevant capital levels for each category. The FDIA’s prompt corrective action provisions only apply to depository institutions and not to bank holding companies. The Federal Reserve’s regulations applicable to bank holding companies separately define “well capitalized.” A financial holding company that is not well-capitalized and well-managed (or whose bank subsidiaries are not well capitalized and well managed) under applicable prompt corrective action standards may be restricted in certain of its activities and ultimately may lose financial holding company status. Under existing rules, an institution that is not an advanced approaches institution is deemed to be “well capitalized” if it has (i) a CET1 ratio of at least 6.5%, (ii) a Tier 1 capital ratio of at least 8%, (iii) a Total capital ratio of at least 10%, and (iv) a Tier 1 leverage ratio of at least 5%.

An institution that is categorized as undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized or critically undercapitalized is required to submit an acceptable capital restoration plan to its appropriate federal banking regulator. Under the FDIA, in order for the capital restoration plan to be accepted by the appropriate federal banking agency, a BHC must guarantee that a subsidiary depository institution will comply with its capital restoration plan, subject to certain limitations. The BHC must also provide appropriate assurances of performance. An undercapitalized institution is also generally prohibited from increasing its average total assets, accepting brokered deposits or offering interest rates on any deposits significantly higher than prevailing market rates, making acquisitions, establishing any branches or engaging in any new line of business, except in accordance with an accepted capital restoration plan or with the approval of the FDIC. Institutions that are significantly undercapitalized or undercapitalized and either fail to submit an acceptable capital restoration plan or fail to implement an approved capital restoration plan may be subject to a number of requirements and restrictions, including orders to sell sufficient voting stock to become adequately capitalized, requirements to reduce total assets and cessation of receipt of deposits from correspondent banks. Critically undercapitalized depository institutions failing to submit or implement an acceptable capital restoration plan are subject to appointment of a receiver or conservator.

Transactions with Affiliates

There are various legal restrictions on the extent to which M&T and its non-bank subsidiaries may borrow or otherwise obtain funding from M&T Bank and Wilmington Trust, N.A. In general, Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act and Federal Reserve Regulation W require that any “covered transaction” by M&T Bank and Wilmington Trust, N.A. (or any of their respective subsidiaries) with an affiliate must in certain cases be secured by designated amounts of specified collateral and must be limited as follows: (a) in the case of any single such affiliate, the aggregate amount of covered transactions of the insured depository institution and its subsidiaries may not exceed 10% of the capital stock and surplus of such insured depository institution, and (b) in the case of all affiliates, the aggregate amount of covered transactions of an insured depository institution and its subsidiaries may not exceed 20% of the capital stock and surplus of such insured depository institution. “Covered transactions” are defined by statute to include, among other things, a loan or extension of credit, as well as a purchase of securities issued by an affiliate, a purchase of assets (unless otherwise exempted by the Federal Reserve) from the affiliate, certain derivative transactions that create a credit exposure to an affiliate, the acceptance of securities issued by the affiliate as collateral for a loan, and the issuance of a guarantee, acceptance or letter of credit on behalf of an affiliate. All covered transactions, including certain additional transactions (such as transactions with a third party in which an affiliate has a financial interest), must be conducted on market terms.

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FDIC Insurance Assessments

Deposit Insurance Assessments. M&T Bank and Wilmington Trust, N.A. deposits are insured by the DIF of the FDIC up to the limits set forth under applicable law. The FDIC imposes a risk-based premium assessment system that determines assessment rates for financial institutions. Deposit insurance assessments are based on average total assets minus average tangible equity. For larger institutions, such as M&T Bank, the FDIC uses a performance score and a loss-severity score that are used to calculate an initial assessment rate. In calculating these scores, the FDIC uses a bank’s capital level and supervisory ratings and certain financial measures to assess an institution’s ability to withstand asset-related stress and funding-related stress. The FDIC has the ability to make discretionary adjustments to the total score based upon significant risk factors that are not adequately captured in the calculations. Under the current system, premiums are assessed quarterly.

Under the FDIA, insurance of deposits may be terminated by the FDIC upon a finding that the institution has engaged in unsafe and unsound practices, is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operations, or has violated any applicable law, regulation, rule, order or condition imposed by the FDIC.

Acquisitions

The BHCA requires every BHC to obtain the prior approval of the Federal Reserve before: (1) it may acquire direct or indirect ownership or control of any voting shares of any bank or savings institution, if after such acquisition, the BHC will directly or indirectly own or control 5% or more of the voting shares of the institution; (2) it or any of its subsidiaries, other than a bank, may acquire all or substantially all of the assets of any bank or savings institution; or (3) it may merge or consolidate with any other BHC. Financial holding companies are required to obtain prior approval from the Federal Reserve before acquiring certain nonbank financial companies with assets exceeding $10 billion.

The BHCA further provides that the Federal Reserve may not approve any transaction that would result in a monopoly or would be in furtherance of any combination or conspiracy to monopolize or attempt to monopolize the business of banking in any section of the United States, or the effect of which may be substantially to lessen competition or to tend to create a monopoly in any section of the country, or that in any other manner would be in restraint of trade, unless the anticompetitive effects of the proposed transaction are clearly outweighed by the public interest in meeting the convenience and needs of the community to be served. The Federal Reserve is also required to consider the financial and managerial resources and future prospects of the bank holding companies and banks concerned and the convenience and needs of the community to be served. Consideration of financial resources generally focuses on capital adequacy and consideration of convenience and needs issues includes the parties’ performance under the CRA and compliance with consumer protection laws. The Federal Reserve must take into account the institutions’ effectiveness in combating money laundering. In addition, pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act, the BHCA was amended to require the Federal Reserve, when evaluating a proposed transaction, to consider the extent to which the transaction would result in greater or more concentrated risks to the stability of the United States banking or financial system.

Executive and Incentive Compensation

Guidelines adopted by several federal banking agencies prohibit excessive compensation as an unsafe and unsound practice and describe compensation as “excessive” when the amounts paid are unreasonable or disproportionate to the services performed by an executive officer, employee, director or principal stockholder. The Federal Reserve issued comprehensive guidance on incentive compensation policies (the “Incentive Compensation Guidance”) intended to ensure that the incentive compensation policies of banking organizations do not undermine the safety and soundness

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of such organizations by encouraging excessive risk-taking. The Incentive Compensation Guidance, which covers all employees that have the ability to materially affect the risk profile of an organization, either individually or as part of a group, is based upon the key principles that a banking organization’s incentive compensation arrangements should (i) provide incentives that do not encourage risk-taking beyond the organization’s ability to effectively identify and manage risks, (ii) be compatible with effective internal controls and risk management, and (iii) be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the organization’s board of directors. These three principles are incorporated into the proposed joint compensation regulations under the Dodd-Frank Act noted below. Any deficiencies in compensation practices that are identified may be incorporated into the organization’s supervisory ratings, which can affect its ability to make acquisitions or perform other actions. The Incentive Compensation Guidance provides that enforcement actions may be taken against a banking organization if its incentive compensation arrangements or related risk-management control or governance processes pose a risk to the organization’s safety and soundness and the organization is not taking prompt and effective measures to correct the deficiencies.

The Dodd-Frank Act requires the federal bank regulatory agencies and the SEC to establish joint regulations or guidelines prohibiting incentive-based payment arrangements at specified regulated entities having at least $1 billion in total assets, such as M&T and M&T Bank. In June 2016, the agencies proposed rules to implement this requirement but these proposed rules have not been finalized.

In October 2016, the NYSDFS issued guidance emphasizing that its regulated banking institutions, including M&T Bank, must ensure that any incentive compensation arrangements tied to employee performance indicators are subject to effective risk management, oversight and control.

The scope and content of the banking regulators’ policies on incentive compensation are continuing to develop and are likely to continue evolving in the future. It cannot be determined at this time whether compliance with such policies will adversely affect the ability of M&T and its subsidiaries to hire, retain and motivate their key employees.

Resolution Planning

Pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act, as amended by EGRRCPA, certain bank holding companies are required to report periodically to the Federal Reserve and the FDIC a resolution plan for their rapid and orderly resolution in the event of material financial distress or failure. However, in connection with the release of the Tailoring Rules, the Federal Reserve and FDIC finalized rules in October 2019 which, among other things, adjust the review cycles and applicability of the agencies’ resolution planning requirements. Under these new rules, Category IV firms such as M&T are no longer required to submit resolution plans.

The FDIC has separately implemented a resolution planning rule that currently requires insured depository institutions with $50 billion or more in total assets, such as M&T Bank, to submit to the FDIC periodic plans for resolution in the event of the institution’s failure. In April 2019, the FDIC released an advance notice of proposed rulemaking about potential changes to its resolution planning requirements for insured depository institutions, such as M&T Bank, and the next round of insured depository institution resolution plan submissions will not be required until the rulemaking process is complete.

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Insolvency of an Insured Depository Institution or a Bank Holding Company

If the FDIC is appointed as conservator or receiver for an insured depository institution such as M&T Bank or Wilmington Trust, N.A., upon its insolvency or in certain other events, the FDIC has the power:

 

to transfer any of the depository institution’s assets and liabilities to a new obligor, including a newly formed “bridge” bank without the approval of the depository institution’s creditors;

 

to enforce the terms of the depository institution’s contracts pursuant to their terms without regard to any provisions triggered by the appointment of the FDIC in that capacity; or

 

to repudiate or disaffirm any contract or lease to which the depository institution is a party, the performance of which is determined by the FDIC to be burdensome and the disaffirmance or repudiation of which is determined by the FDIC to promote the orderly administration of the depository institution.

In addition, under federal law, the claims of holders of domestic deposit liabilities and certain claims for administrative expenses against an insured depository institution would be afforded a priority over other general unsecured claims against such an institution, including claims of debt holders of the institution, in the “liquidation or other resolution” of such an institution by any receiver. As a result, whether or not the FDIC ever sought to repudiate any debt obligations of M&T Bank or Wilmington Trust, N.A., the debt holders would be treated differently from, and could receive, if anything, substantially less than, the depositors of the bank. The Dodd-Frank Act created a new resolution regime (known as “orderly liquidation authority”) for systemically important financial companies, including bank holding companies and their affiliates. Under the orderly liquidation authority, the FDIC may be appointed as receiver for the systemically important institution, and its failed subsidiaries, for purposes of liquidating the entity if, among other conditions, it is determined at the time of the institution’s failure that it is in default or in danger of default and the failure poses a risk to the stability of the U.S. financial system.

If the FDIC is appointed as receiver under the orderly liquidation authority, then the powers of the receiver, and the rights and obligations of creditors and other parties who have dealt with the institution, would be determined under the Dodd-Frank Act provisions, and not under the insolvency law that would otherwise apply. The powers of the receiver under the orderly liquidation authority were based on the powers of the FDIC as receiver for depository institutions under the FDIA. However, the provisions governing the rights of creditors under the orderly liquidation authority were modified in certain respects to reduce disparities with the treatment of creditors’ claims under the U.S. Bankruptcy Code as compared to the treatment of those claims under the new authority. Nonetheless, substantial differences in the rights of creditors exist as between these two regimes, including the right of the FDIC to disregard the strict priority of creditor claims in some circumstances, the use of an administrative claims procedure to determine creditors’ claims (as opposed to the judicial procedure utilized in bankruptcy proceedings), and the right of the FDIC to transfer claims to a “bridge” entity.

An orderly liquidation fund will fund such liquidation proceedings through borrowings from the Treasury Department and risk-based assessments made, first, on entities that received more in the resolution than they would have received in liquidation to the extent of such excess, and second, if necessary, on bank holding companies with total consolidated assets of $50 billion or more, such as M&T. If an orderly liquidation is triggered, M&T could face assessments for the orderly liquidation fund.

The FDIC has developed a strategy under the orderly liquidation authority referred to as the “single point of entry” strategy, under which the FDIC would resolve a failed financial holding

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company by transferring its assets (including shares of its operating subsidiaries) and, potentially, very limited liabilities to a “bridge” holding company; utilize the resources of the failed financial holding company to recapitalize the operating subsidiaries; and satisfy the claims of unsecured creditors of the failed financial holding company and other claimants in the receivership by delivering securities of one or more new financial companies that would emerge from the bridge holding company. Under this strategy, management of the failed financial holding company would be replaced and shareholders and creditors of the failed financial holding company would bear the losses resulting from the failure.

Depositor Preference

Under federal law, depositors and certain claims for administrative expenses and employee compensation against an insured depository institution would be afforded a priority over other general unsecured claims against such an institution in the “liquidation or other resolution” of such an institution by any receiver. If an insured depository institution fails, insured and uninsured depositors, along with the FDIC, will have priority in payment ahead of unsecured, non-deposit creditors, including depositors whose deposits are payable only outside of the United States and the parent BHC, with respect to any extensions of credit they have made to such insured depository institution.

Financial Privacy and Cyber Security

The federal banking regulators have adopted rules that limit the ability of banks and other financial institutions to disclose non-public information about consumers to non-affiliated third parties. These limitations require disclosure of privacy policies to consumers and, in some circumstances, allow consumers to prevent disclosure of certain personal information to a non-affiliated third party. These regulations affect how consumer information is transmitted through diversified financial companies and conveyed to outside vendors. In addition, consumers may also prevent disclosure of certain information among affiliated companies that is assembled or used to determine eligibility for a product or service, such as that shown on consumer credit reports and asset and income information from applications. Consumers also have the option to direct banks and other financial institutions not to share information about transactions and experiences with affiliated companies for the purpose of marketing products or services. Federal law makes it a criminal offense, except in limited circumstances, to obtain or attempt to obtain customer information of a financial nature by fraudulent or deceptive means.

In October 2016, the federal banking regulators jointly issued an advance notice of proposed rulemaking on enhanced cyber risk management standards that are intended to increase the operational resilience of large and interconnected entities under their supervision. If established, the enhanced cyber risk management standards would be designed to help reduce the potential impact of a cyber-attack or other cyber-related failure on the financial system. The advance notice of proposed rulemaking addresses five categories of cyber standards: (1) cyber risk governance; (2) cyber risk management; (3) internal dependency management; (4) external dependency management; and (5) incident response, cyber resilience, and situational awareness.

In March 2017, the NYSDFS implemented regulations requiring financial institutions regulated by the NYSDFS, including M&T Bank, to, among other things, (i) establish and maintain a cyber security program designed to ensure the confidentiality, integrity and availability of their information systems; (ii) implement and maintain a written cyber security policy setting forth policies and procedures for the protection of their information systems and nonpublic information; and (iii) designate a Chief Information Security Officer.

Many state regulators have been increasingly active in implementing privacy and cybersecurity standards and regulations, including implementing or modifying their data breach notification and

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data privacy requirements. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act became effective on January 1, 2020.

Consumer Protection Laws and the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau Supervision

In connection with their respective lending and leasing activities, M&T Bank, Wilmington Trust, N.A. and certain of their subsidiaries, are each subject to a number of federal and state laws designed to protect borrowers and promote lending to various sectors of the economy. Such laws include: the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act, the Truth in Lending Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Electronic Fund Transfer Act, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act, and various state law counterparts. Furthermore, the CFPB has issued integrated disclosure requirements under the Truth in Lending Act and the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act that relate to the provision of disclosures to borrowers. There are also consumer protection laws governing deposit taking activities (e.g. Truth in Savings Act), as well securities and insurance laws governing certain aspects of the Company’s consolidated operations.

The Dodd-Frank Act established the CFPB with broad powers to supervise and enforce most federal consumer protection laws. The CFPB has broad rule-making authority for a wide range of consumer protection laws that apply to all banks and savings institutions, including the authority to prohibit “unfair, deceptive or abusive” acts and practices. The CFPB has examination and enforcement authority over all banks and savings institutions with more than $10 billion in assets, including M&T Bank.

One of the important rules in governing deposits is the Electronic Fund Transfer Act which, among other things, prohibits financial institutions from charging consumers fees for paying overdrafts on automated teller machines (“ATM”) and one-time debit card transactions, unless a consumer consents, or opts in, to the overdraft service for those type of transactions. If a consumer does not opt in, any ATM transaction or one-time debit card transaction sent for approval that exceeds the customer’s available balance will be declined. Overdrafts on other types of transactions (e.g. checks, recurring debit card transactions and ACH transactions) are not covered by this rule. Before opting in, the consumer must be provided a notice that explains the financial institution’s overdraft services, including the fees associated with the service, and the consumer’s choices. Financial institutions must provide consumers who do not opt in with the same account terms, conditions and features (including pricing) that they provide to consumers who do opt in.

The CFPB has issued final rules that change the reporting requirements for lenders under the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act. The rules expand the range of transactions subject to the requirements to include most securitized residential mortgage loans and credit lines. The rules also increased the overall amount of data required to be collected and submitted, including additional data points about loans and borrowers.

In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act permits states to adopt consumer protection laws and standards that are more stringent than those adopted at the federal level and, in certain circumstances, permits state attorneys general to enforce compliance with both the state and federal laws and regulations.

Community Reinvestment Act

The CRA is intended to encourage depository institutions to help meet the credit needs of the communities in which they operate, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods, consistent with safe and sound operations. CRA examinations are conducted by the federal agencies that are responsible for supervising depository institutions: the Federal Reserve, the FDIC and the OCC. A financial institution’s performance in helping to meet the credit needs of its community is evaluated in the context of information about the institution (capacity, constraints and business strategies), its community (demographic and economic data, lending, investment, and service opportunities), and its

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competitors and peers. Upon completion of a CRA examination, an overall CRA Rating is assigned using a four-tiered rating system. These ratings are: “Outstanding,” “Satisfactory,” “Needs to Improve” and “Substantial Noncompliance.” The CRA evaluation is used in evaluating applications for future approval of bank activities including mergers, acquisitions, charters, branch openings and deposit facilities. M&T Bank has a current rating of “Outstanding.” M&T Bank is also subject to New York State CRA examination and is assessed using a 1 to 4 scoring system. M&T Bank currently has an “Outstanding” rating from the NYSDFS. Wilmington Trust, N.A. has been designated a special purpose trust company since March 3, 2016, and is therefore exempt from the requirements of the CRA. In April 2018, the U.S. Department of Treasury issued a memorandum to the federal banking regulators with recommended changes to the CRA’s implementing regulations to reduce their complexity and associated burden on banks. In December 2019, the OCC and FDIC issued a notice of proposed rulemaking intended to (i) clarify which activities qualify for CRA credit; (ii) update where activities count for CRA credit; (iii) create a more transparent and objective method for measuring CRA performance; and (iv) provide for more transparent, consistent, and timely CRA-related data collection, recordkeeping, and reporting. However, the Federal Reserve has not joined the proposed rulemaking. The Company will continue to evaluate the impact of any changes to the regulations implementing the CRA.

Bank Secrecy and Anti-Money Laundering

Federal laws and regulations impose obligations on U.S. financial institutions, including banks and broker/dealer subsidiaries, to implement and maintain appropriate policies, procedures and controls which are reasonably designed to prevent, detect and report instances of money laundering and the financing of terrorism and to verify the identity of their customers. In addition, these provisions require the federal financial institution regulatory agencies to consider the effectiveness of a financial institution’s anti-money laundering activities when reviewing bank mergers and BHC acquisitions. Failure of a financial institution to maintain and implement adequate programs to combat money laundering and terrorist financing could have serious legal and reputational consequences for the institution.

Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, which drafts regulations implementing the USA PATRIOT Act and other anti-money laundering and bank secrecy act legislation, has adopted rules that require financial institutions to obtain beneficial ownership information with respect to legal entities with which such institutions conduct business, subject to certain exclusions and exemptions. Bank regulators are focusing their examinations on anti-money laundering compliance, and M&T continues to monitor and augment, where necessary, its anti-money laundering compliance programs.

Office of Foreign Assets Control Regulation

The United States has imposed economic sanctions that affect transactions with designated foreign countries, nationals and others. These are typically known as the “OFAC” rules based on their administration by the U.S. Treasury Department Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”). The OFAC-administered sanctions targeting countries take many different forms. Generally, however, they contain one or more of the following elements: (i) restrictions on trade with or investment in a sanctioned country, including prohibitions against direct or indirect imports from and exports to a sanctioned country and prohibitions on “U.S. persons” engaging in financial transactions relating to making investments in, or providing investment-related advice or assistance to, a sanctioned country; and (ii) a blocking of assets in which the government or specially designated nationals of the sanctioned country have an interest, by prohibiting transfers of property subject to U.S. jurisdiction (including property in the possession or control of U.S. persons). Blocked assets (e.g. property and bank deposits) cannot be paid out, withdrawn, set off or transferred in any manner without a license

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from OFAC. Failure to comply with these sanctions could have serious legal and reputational consequences.

Federal Reserve Policies

The earnings of the Company are significantly affected by the monetary and fiscal policies of governmental authorities, including the Federal Reserve. Among the instruments of monetary policy used by the Federal Reserve are open-market operations in U.S. Government securities and federal funds, changes in the discount rate on member bank borrowings and changes in reserve requirements against member bank deposits. These instruments of monetary policy are used in varying combinations to influence the overall level of bank loans, investments and deposits, and the interest rates charged on loans and paid for deposits. The Federal Reserve frequently uses these instruments of monetary policy, especially its open-market operations and the discount rate, to influence the level of interest rates and to affect the strength of the economy, the level of inflation or the price of the dollar in foreign exchange markets. The monetary policies of the Federal Reserve have had a significant effect on the operating results of banking institutions in the past and are expected to continue to do so in the future. It is not possible to predict the nature of future changes in monetary and fiscal policies or the effect which they may have on the Company’s business and earnings.

Corporate Governance

M&T’s Corporate Governance Standards and the following corporate governance documents are also available on M&T’s website at the Investor Relations link: Disclosure and Regulation FD Policy; Executive Committee Charter; Nomination, Compensation and Governance Committee Charter; Audit Committee Charter; Risk Committee Charter; Financial Reporting and Disclosure Controls and Procedures Policy; Code of Ethics for CEO and Senior Financial Officers; Code of Business Conduct and Ethics; Employee Complaint Procedures for Accounting and Auditing Matters; and Excessive or Luxury Expenditures Policy. Copies of such governance documents are also available, free of charge, to any person who requests them. Such requests may be directed to M&T Bank Corporation, Shareholder Relations Department, One M&T Plaza, 8th Floor, Buffalo, NY 14203-2399 (Telephone: (716) 842-5138).

Competition

The Company competes in offering commercial and personal financial and wealth services with other banking institutions and thrifts and with firms in a number of other industries, such as credit unions, personal loan companies, sales finance companies, leasing companies, securities brokerage firms, mutual fund companies, hedge funds, wealth and investment advisory firms, insurance companies and other financial services-related entities. Furthermore, diversified financial services companies are able to offer a combination of these services to their customers on a nationwide basis. The Company’s operations are significantly impacted by state and federal regulations applicable to the banking industry. Moreover, provisions of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999, the Interstate Banking Act and state banking laws have allowed for increased competition among diversified financial services providers and e-commerce and other Internet-based companies.

Other Information

Through a link on the Investor Relations section of M&T’s website at www.mtb.com, copies of M&T’s Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, are made available, free of charge, as soon as reasonably practicable after electronically filing such material with, or furnishing it to, the SEC. Copies of such reports and other information are also available at no charge to any person who requests them or at www.sec.gov. Such

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requests may be directed to M&T Bank Corporation, Shareholder Relations Department, One M&T Plaza, 8th Floor, Buffalo, NY 14203-2399 (Telephone: (716) 842-5138).

Statistical Disclosure Pursuant to Guide 3

See cross-reference sheet for disclosures incorporated elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Additional information is included in the following tables.

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Table 1

SELECTED CONSOLIDATED YEAR-END BALANCES

 

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

 

(In thousands)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest-bearing deposits at banks

 

$

7,190,154

 

 

$

8,105,197

 

 

$

5,078,903

 

 

$

5,000,638

 

 

$

7,594,350

 

Federal funds sold

 

 

3,500

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Trading account

 

 

470,129

 

 

 

185,584

 

 

 

132,909

 

 

 

323,867

 

 

 

273,783